Roughly two decades before the modern era, the Age of Apocalypse refugee named Sugarman arrived in our timeline. He established a power base for himself in the South African island nation of Genosha, using the technology of his time to create the Mutate bonding process. Introduced to the Genoshan government through his intermediary, Philip Moreau, the process turned mutants into slaves by reducing their intelligence and free will, and bonding them into waste-recycling skinsuits that also prevented breeding. A mutant's latent or undeveloped powers could also be activated and tailored to the specific needs of the government.
All mutants born in Genosha were forced into slavery as Mutates until Xavier's students overthrew the Genoshan government in the X-Tinction Agenda. Some aspects of the Mutate process proved to be reversible, as many Genoshan Mutates demonstrated the return of their free will over time.