The Serpent Society developed out of the Serpent Squad created by RoXXon Oil. Going into business for himself, Sidewinder created a criminal enterprise populated by more than a dozen snake-themed operatives. A lucrative venture, the Society shared in profits and employment, provided health care and rooming for the members, and Sidewinder's teleporting abilities ensured that any member who was arrested wouldn't remain arrested for long. The Serpent Society competed with the Australia era X-Men during Atlantis Attacks, and Dazzler and Diamondback briefly exchanged bodies during this adventure.
In-fighting and an aborted coup among the members briefly led to Viper II taking over the Society. After she was captured, Sidewinder refused to continue working with the members who betrayed his trust, and named King Cobra as his successor. The Society was eventually shut down in Captain America (1st series) #436, but they have reorganized occasionally since then.
Other members unrelated to the X-Men include Sidewinder, Death Adder, Black Mamba, Diamondback, King Cobra, Rattler, Asp, Bushmaster, Cottonmouth, Princess Python, Copperhead, Fer-de-Lance, Puff Adder, Black Racer, Rock Python, Coachwhip, and Boomslang.