In the X.S.E. Future Timeline -- itself a variation on the classic Days of Future Past -- the Summers Rebellion was the uprising that ended Sentinel domination of mutantkind and ultimately freed mutants from the camps. First mentioned in Bishop #3, it was eventually established that the "Summers" in the Summers Rebellion was Cyclops himself, artificially preserved long past his prime as a cyborg. With the prodding of Layla Miller, Cyclops and his daughter Ruby began the Rebellion in X-Factor: Layla Miller #1.
When the Summers Rebellion ended, a new order was established in the United States where mutants policed themselves, relying on veterans of the Rebellion who formed the original Xavier Security Enforcers squad.